We are one week away from branch cut for PyTorch 2.0. We are continuing the slow grind of last mile bugs: there are still no major features we want to get in before the branch cut. We have reached the point where there are no more “easy” bugs; every bug is nontrivial and has someone working on it. On the people front: Brian is focusing on inference functionalization + AOTAutograd related OOMs; Voz has passed off trace time improvements to Edward.
Tracking dynamic shapes performance.@gchanan has asked us to start tracking the performance of models running with dynamic shapes. This should be integrated into the performance dashboard; hopefully it can happen in the next month; but perhaps it should wait until we move performance onto GCP A100 in CI, as the current dashboard run takes 16 hours.
Dynamic shapes minifier. The dynamic shapes minifier is less broken now; Edward spent some time this week working on it to extract repros for LearningToPaint and Background_Matting accuracy errors. However, it still does not work very well (AOT accuracy minification is fundamentally broken and needs a rewrite.)
More on tracing speed. OpTree is still shambling along, but at this rate unlikely to make branch cut. Voz passed off his hacky prototype to Edward, who has implemented a sound version of the optimization at https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch/pull/94047 ; it isn’t as fast as the hacky prototype, but in exhaustive testing appears to match behavior exactly.
aot_eager inference: -6 (-3 WoW). The regression is due to the CUDA 11.7 upgrade, which introduced new accuracy failures. This upgrade also caused this exact set of models to start accuracy failing on training with static shapes, so it’s probably not dynamic shapes specifics, but by our metric design this still counts as a regression. We haven’t had a chance to investigate yet.
aot_eager training: 0 (+1 WoW). I believe the timeout was fixed by some of Voz’s performance improvements.
voz: landing dynamo graph breaks. bug fixes? post branch cut: forbid specialization (previously known as guard inversion), test bankruptcy
Our north star: Dynamic shapes at feature parity with static shapes (but NOT turned on by default.) We might want to adjust this so that dynamic shapes is “on” by default, but we assume all inputs are static by default.
It’s the eve of the branch cut for PyTorch 2.0. Training support is still not landed to master, though Horace says he’s made progress against some of the FSDP bugs plaguing his PR. Brian’s functionalization for inference is on the cusp of landing, after working through considerable flakiness in Inductor. The general mood is that we need more inductor developers. We had a lot of forward looking design discussion this week, check the bullets for details.
Tracing speed improved on master.Fast path binary ops in fake tensor by ezyang · Pull Request #94047 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub has made it to master; on some models, it can cut dynamic shapes tracing time in half. There is some low hanging fruit for extending the approach here to more operators. In general, we’ve found improving trace time challenging as Python profiles tend not to identify problems directly (one thing we note is that we don’t get aggregation on a per-op basis because of all the metaprogramming we do; another hypothesis for our difficulty is the amount of Python-C++ crossings we tend to do). We don’t think Sympy is the main cause of slowdown, but Sympy can cause other problems when it gets into pathological cases (see below.) We need to start tracking this metric in our runs.
Dynamic shape induced graph breaks are way down. Voz and Joel have done a lot of good work hosing down extra graph breaks from dynamic shapes. The remaining holdout is avoiding graph breaks on negation; fixing the graph break is easy but the resulting graph appears to cause Inductor to infinite loop; Voz was unsuccessful at diagnosing the problem.
Dynamic by default. jansel has argued us back into goaling on dynamic by default. The general idea is that we should be leaning into PyTorch’s historic flexibility and support for dynamic shapes. Jason’s straw proposal is the first time we assume it’s static, and upon recompile we compile with dynamic shapes. Elias cautions that if there aren’t too many dynamic shapes, it may be better to generate separate specialized kernels for each and retain use of CUDA graphs and autotuning. Most of us were generally positive on this idea, but concerned about the implementation: dynamic shapes trace time, greater bug surface and lower generated code quality. Still, we can probably keep moving PT2 in this direction, but more data is also necessary.
Fine-grained dynamic dimensions. We want an API for marking dimensions as being explicitly dynamic. There are two primary users for this: (1) export, where we want to reject specialization/guards on dimensions that are explicitly dynamic as these usually indicate tracing problems and (2) eager mode power users, who want fine grained control over what dimensions should be compiled dynamically–e.g., to maximize performance, avoid unnecessary recompilation, or just diagnose why a model is recompiling when it shouldn’t. The fine-grained API is not intended to be the initial starting point for regular users: normal users should be able to not annotate anything and get intelligent results (see bullet above.) We went through a lot of API variations, but our current plan is to ship an API that lets you mark tensors as having dynamic dimensions, which affects how torch.compile does compilation. In the long term, we intend for eager mode to propagate these annotations using symbolic meta formulas (which is important for making this work across graph breaks). These annotations will NOT do anything if inserted inside a model; they only work at the “top level” where you trigger compilation. Some minutes for this discussion at https://docs.google.com/document/d/1aoIyYE8_6cYpWqS25thzVoIiKsT5aaUEOiiPwbIXt8k/edit Sherlock has an out-of-date prototype of the API at Fine grain dynamic shape by SherlockNoMad · Pull Request #93813 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub
torch.constrain. When you mark a dimension as dynamic, you reject any user code which would constrain the dimension. But what if the constraint is that the dimension != 0; you would like a way to say that this constraint is acceptable. torch.constrain is an API that can be called inside the model to indicate these constraints should be accepted. Originally, Voz and Horace were imagining that you could put arbitrarily Python expressions in these constraints. We’ve negotiated to only allow a more limited set of constraints to start: min/max and multiple-of. We plan not to allow “relational” constraints that relate two separate symbolic variables: we simply assume that these are always OK. This means that export still needs some mechanism for communicating “implicit” guards (much in the same way we implicitly guard on the dtypes of all tensor inputs.) This API will likely also be used by unbacked SymInts. A big benefit of only allowing min/max constraints is they are easy to implement; you do not need to use Z3.
Unspecialize is adding too many float/int arguments. Horace noticed that forward graphs with dynamic shapes turned on have a lot of SymInt/SymFloat arguments. This is because we set specialize_int_float = False with dynamic shapes, but it turns out there are quite a few int/floats we SHOULD be specializing on. Horace is looking into this more.
SymInts/SymFloats in the backend compiler calling convention. In several conversations this week, we discussed whether or not Inductor should accept graphs that ONLY have Tensor inputs, or are int/floats valid inputs to the graphs. jansel and Natalia argued that it works well to turn int/floats into 0d cpu scalar tensors, and inductor supports this well. However, Horace pointed out that this does not work in general: if you have a backward graph for x.sum(), you need to do an x.expand(sym_int), where the SymInt isn’t necessarily derivable from any input to the backward graph. You can make it work, but the price is an FX graph that isn’t executable from Python anymore. So our current thinking is that we are doubling down on int/float inputs, unless jansel manages to change our minds.
aot_eager training: 0 (unchanged). No regressions!
inductor inference: -8 (+2 WoW). The improvements are from hoisting from Natalia; there are also some new improvements from Natalia which should help with the remaining errors.
inductor training: still waiting on Horace to land his patch
Opinfo tests on symbolic shapes.
pytest test/test_proxy_tensor.py -k test_make_fx_symbolic_exhaustive - 553 passed (+3 WoW), 523 skipped (+1 WoW), 196 xfailed (+4 WoW). The increase in xfails are from some new RNG opinfos contributed by min-jean-cho.
The branch cut for PyTorch 2.0 has come and gone. Training support was not landed to master in time for the branch cut, so it is unlikely to be working in the official PT2 release (on the bright side: inference functionalization made it for the branch cut! We think this fixed some inductor inference accuracy problems.) Stick to testing dynamic shapes on inference, sorry folks. A lot of the work this week was focused on inference export scenarios: there was quite a bit of progress on unbacked SymInts, the beginnings of a fine-grained dynamic shape API are in master and we also covered the 0/1 specialization problem in composability sync.
Unbacked SymInt progress. We made a lot of progress for unbacked SymInts support; most notably, value range analysis for unbacked SymInts has made it to trunk, so you can now use constrain_range on an unbacked SymInt to discharge guards (e.g., by marking an unbacked SymInt as >= 0). The entirety of CrystalDPR has successfully been traced end-to-end Redirecting... (Meta-only), and I’m currently in the process of landing the necessary changes / cleaning up hacks. The biggest new discovered item we have to handle is when user code tests if a mask has any True elements in it, and if so, performs a boolean mask (otherwise, it lets all the elements through); to faithfully export this, we must use torch.cond, and we also must be able to join divergent shape variables together (into an unbacked SymInt). We also identified that guard free implementations of PyTorch must be allowed to change stride behavior sometimes; we will justify this under stride agnostic PyTorch (which says changes in strides are not allowed to affect program semantics.)
Fine-grained dynamic shapes. Voz has landed an initial version of fine-grained dynamic shape control in https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch/pull/94787 . This is a compromise API, where you still have to mark dynamic=True and assume_static_by_default=False, pending some refactors to bypass this. The PR as landed still uses backed SymInts, and only tests if a dynamic dimension is overconstrained at the end of trace time; switching it to use unbacked SymInts for export and better diagnostics for why guards occurred is upcoming work.
aot_eager inference: -1 (+1 WoW). The last holdout is vision_maskrcnn, which is due to an FX printing problem involving constants and inplace addition.
aot_eager training: 0 (unchanged). No regressions!
inductor inference: -5 (+3 WoW). We no longer have accuracy failures with dynamic shapes (we never root caused this, but I bet it’s inference functionalization related); pytorch_unet was fixed by more improvements from Natalia
inductor training: still waiting on Horace to land his patch
OpInfo tests on symbolic shapes.
557 passed (+4 WoW), 524 skipped (+1 WoW), 197 xfailed (+1 WoW). New OpInfo for _upsample_bilinear2d_aa among others.
ezyang: landing the rest of the CrystalDPR enablement fixes, presenting about how unbacked SymInt enablement works, then probably more on calling convention (but I also might want to work on some real model enablement for a bit? Depends on how much time I have)
Chillee: still landing inductor training
bdhirsh: per-dispatch key mode stacks and then torchquant/DTensor PT2 support
Export summit was this week. nonzero export support has hit master, give it a shot with capture_dynamic_output_shape_ops; with this, dynamic shapes work stream is deprioritizing export use cases for a bit. Training support is still not landed, this week we blame export summit for reducing coding time.
Worse is better unbacked SymInt. Last week, we showed off a PR stack with all the tricks for avoiding guards in core PyTorch code. Well, people didn’t like having to change their code to carefully avoid guarding on 0/1. So we came up with a new plan: Steps forward for 0/1 specialization (worse is better) - Google Docs that involves doing a lot less work, as we will just unsoundly assume that unbacked SymInts cannot be 0/1 (the observation being that: if code works for any value of N>1, it usually works for N=1 too.) The rest of the non-controversial unbacked SymInt changes have landed to master (in particular, value ranges are in! Lots of opportunity here!), and @ezyang is moving back to non-export related dynamic shapes work. To experiment with item()/nonzero() support, you must set config flags capture_scalar_outputs and capture_dynamic_output_shape_ops to True. Inductor does NOT support nonzero, so this is mostly only useful for export.
State of real world model enablement. I’d like to keep this section around from week-to-week. Not exactly sure how to setup the numeric metrics yet, stay posted. We don’t have a stack ranking of how important any given model is, but there are not so many so far so I think it is safe to say they are all important.
LLaMa (https://research.facebook.com/publications/llama-open-and-efficient-foundation-language-models/) - one of the researchers reached out to us internally on Jan 17 about speeding up inference, but at the time it wasn’t working. Some of the known problems: failing to generate dynamic kernels because split reductions are size specialized and LLaMA hits them, some other problems which are fixed on HEAD. Next steps: put LLaMA into torchbench and run it end to end; can also do Redirecting... (Meta only) which is a more minimal repro, although I think once you get far enough it’s missing some imports.
InstructPix2PIx (InstructPix2Pix) - requested from XR Labs via @wconstab ; 2D image dynamic inputs. No initial investigation. Please file a GitHub issue to track it too.
Fused boolean mask update (Redirecting... - Meta only) - Fei asked why x[bool_mask] = y requires an DtoH sync, and Soumith promised that eventually dynamic shapes would support fusing this all together. Let’s make sure this happens. (It may be simpler to pattern match this and replace it with torch.where though!)
Graph breaks on master. -3 (-1 WoW). The regression is hf_Longformer and AllenaiLongformerBase on master, non-function or method super: <slot wrapper '_setitem_' of 'collections.OrderedDict' objects>, @voz is investigating. To catch regressions, we’re going to add expected graph break counts to CI; @wconstab is going to do this.
Tracing cost of enabling dynamic shapes (aot_eager). Mean: 21s (-7s FoF), Max: 254s (-406 FoF). Two weeks ago I said I was going to explain what these stats are and forgot . Here’s the explanation I promised. What we would like to measure is how much more expensive doing tracing with symbolic shapes is, since if it is substantially more expensive in absolute terms our users won’t want to have it turned on by default. So what we do is we run aot_eager accuracy benchmark with and without benchmarks, and record how long we spend inside frame compilation. We then compare the difference and take the mean and max. Improvements from last two weeks are likely from better constructor short circuiting (no longer decomposing empty.)
What’s made it to master since last time?
I’m retiring this section, but holler if you found it useful and I’ll start doing it again.
What’s coming next?
ezyang: no longer working on unbacked SymInts, back on model enablement. Will spend some time ramping on inductor (mood: no docs WRYYYY). Still planning to untangle the int-inductor calling convention problem
Chillee: still landing inductor training. Maybe will write another Inductor explainerdoc.
bdhirsh: aotautograd refactor for training export, as well as per-dispatch key mode stacks and then torchquant/DTensor PT2 support
jbschlosser: pivoting to sparse stuff, will be omitted from list here
voz: follow through on fine grained dynamic shapes, follow up on graph break regression, constraints
Training support has hit master… sort of. Horace’s patch to add training support passed CI and is landed, but it turns out our testing was insufficient and you need to manually turn on torch._functorch.config.use_dynamic_shapes = True for it to actually work. This is fixed in Fix training enablement in AOTAutograd by ezyang · Pull Request #95975 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub which isn’t landed yet. A large number of models pass, but there are also many models which fail or have accuracy failures, we plan on burning these issues down shortly.
Handling int/float inputs/intermediates in Inductor. One of the major points of contention are how exactly non-Tensor ints/floats supposed to be passed to Inductor. Should they be passed as SymInt or 0d tensors? We’ve finally resolved the question at Handling int/float inputs/intermediates in Inductor - Google Docs The overall idea is that sizevar computation should be expressed as non-Tensor computation (or, more specifically, with sympy expressions), but everything else should just be Tensor compute, for ease of lowering. In practice, this means ints are passed as ints (as we must track their sympy expressions in case they are used in a sizevar compute), but we have made a policy decision that input floats can NEVER be used sizevar compute, and thus they can always be passed as 0d tensors.
Int unspecialization actually works now. Previously, there was a knob specialize_int_float, which, hypothetically, if set to False, allowed you to generate Dynamo graphs which didn’t specialize on int/float inputs. In practice, this knob didn’t actually do anything, as every integer between 0-17 was specialized anyway. In practice, this matters; for example, overspecialization in torch._dynamo.exc.Unsupported: dynamic shapes: arange · Issue #93468 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub was due to Dynamo deciding that a batch size of 10 was small enough to specialize on. Make int unspecialization actually work fixes that problem. However, this in the process uncovered a pile of bugs in Inductor regarding unspecialized ints. Right now, int unspecialization is not turned on by default but we intend to shift to it soon, allowing for regressions in CI.
We now allow implicit specialization via int conversion. Previously, if you ran int(symint), we would raise a warning, saying that this would cause a specialization, and if you really wanted it, you should explicitly guard_int. We have now relaxed this restriction: we will implicitly convert SymInts to ints and introduce guards as necessary. This switch is profitable because there are a number of APIs which cannot, even in principle, support dynamic shapes, and so allowing these implicit conversions make these APIs work (as opposed to fail as we do today).
Guards depending on unbacked SymInts.@tugsbayasgalan took the new nonzero export support in master, and he noticed one major gap: in some cases, we would generate guards that depended on unbacked SymInts, which is a big no-no, because guards must be executed at the very beginning of a model, but an unbacked SymInt may only become known midway through execution. The fix for this Don't generate guards that refer to unbacked SymInts by ezyang · Pull Request #95732 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub revealed that there a number of guards with the odd property: (1) if you replace the backed shape variables (s0, s1, …) with their size hints, you can statically determine what the guard should evaluate to given the example inputs, but… (2) without this replacement, it’s not clear if the guard is true or not. For example, Ne(36*i0, 36) is trivially True when i0 > 1, but the real expression in context is Ne(i0*((s2//2 - 1)//8)**2 + 2*i0*((s2//2 - 1)//8) + i0, ((s2//2 - 1)//8)**2 + 2*((s2//2 - 1)//8) + 1) (which Tugsuu also thinks is True, but sympy can’t figure it out.) Another example is Eq(i0*s3**2, 9*i0), where this should result in a guard that s3 = 3 but sympy once again cannot figure it out. Our current hypothesis is that many of these shape variables are actually static at the end, but at the time the guard we don’t know what they are; so either deferring the checks till later or encouraging users to assume_static_by_default = True should help. Tugsuu will validate this next week.
PSA: size_hint vs evaluate_expr. We found out this week that some internal teams are making use of ShapeEnv, and were misusing evaluate_expr. Contrary to what its name suggests, this not only evaluates an expression, but it ALSO installs a guard. If you want to peek at what the value of the expression is without guarding, you should use size_hint.
State of real world model enablement.
Mark Saroufim has tentatively volunteered to add LLaMa and InstructPix2Pix to torchbench, which will help us track whether they work or not with dynamic shapes.
OpenNMT’s arange minimal repo no longer overspecializes, but it fails in Inductor now with assert isinstance(numer, int) and isinstance( at
torch/_inductor/utils.py:83. This failure also affects fastNLP_Bert, speech_transformer and yolov3 inductor inference
No updates: MaskRCNN, Detectron2, wav2vec2, fused boolean mask update
Model status on master.
aot_eager inference: 0 (+1 WoW), Joel’s PR made it in.
aot_eager training: 0 (unchanged). No regressions!
inductor inference: -4 (+1 WoW). swin fix made it in.
inductor inference unspec: -10 (NEW!). This number is tracking inductor inference with specialize_int = False now that unspecialization actually does something. We plan to subsume the old inductor inference number with this one, as unspecialization is important for avoiding overspecialization in graph breaks in practice. We should probably also switch the aot_eager stats to this as well.
Graph breaks on master. 0ish (+3 WoW). A sweep on 2/23 revealed a extra graph breaks on hf_Longformer and AllenaiLongformerBase but Voz manually confirmed that the static model also graph breaks. @wconstab added ability for CI to record graph breaks Add dynamo graph break stats to CI by wconstab · Pull Request #95635 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub so hopefully we can just start testing the number of graph breaks in CI and ensure we avoid regressions this way. Tracing cost of enabling dynamic shapes (aot_eager). Mean: 20s (-1s WoW), Max: 240s (-14s WoW). This looks within noise.
Inductor guards are silently discarded; this could cause accuracy problems
CI is not testing if we actually successfully generate dynamic code, so we could silently regress this (right now, we validate the generated code by manual inspection)
We are not testing performance of dynamic shapes code; it could be heinously slow (fixing this is blocked on GCP dashboard runs)
Minifier does not work with dynamic shapes
Split reductions in Inductor do not work with dynamic shapes
Python profiling gives misleading results for what is causing slowdowns
What’s coming next?
ezyang: probably a mix of unspec int / training burndown, and discovering more issues from our E2E models. The assert isinstance(numer, int) and isinstance( is a particular blocker for OpenNMT.
Chillee: returning to dynamic shapes, probably something symbolic reasoning related, also some training burndown
msaroufim: I asked Mark to add LLaMa and InstructPix2Pix to torchbench, we’ll see if he gets to it or not
bdhirsh: still aotautograd refactor for training export, as well as per-dispatch key mode stacks and then torchquant/DTensor PT2 support (was working on reference cycle issue this week)
Training support is now properly fixed on master; modifying functorch config is no longer necessary. Some Inductor bugs were fixed, some are still pending.
specialize_int = False (aka --unspecialize-int) is now the default in CI (with some regressions), and soon will defaulted for regular users too.
Dynamic shapes are working for whole graph inference (e.g., BERT), but we often overspecialize when there are graph breaks. Two weeks ago we fixed overspecialization on size ints that were carried across graph breaks (when specialize_int=False); a similar fix for torch.Size carried across graph breaks is pending at Don’t specialize torch.Size with specialize_int = False
The case of flaky dynamo export tests. This is not exactly symbolic shapes related, but the debugging session was prompted while I was working on some symbolic shapes related changes. This bug is of interest to anyone working with Dynamo: Debugging story: The case of the flaky Dynamo export tests
Fallthrough works correctly with PyOperator. If you use functorch control flow operators for export, you should be happy to know that PyOperator fallthrough now works (see Correctly resolve dispatch keys for PyOperator stack), which should solve some problems that Angela Yi was working on unblocking.
Tons of bugs fixed, still lots more bugs. Some highlights:
Export is getting a higher level constraints API. This adds a new constraints kwarg to export, which lets you declare things like “these dimensions are dynamic” (dynamic_dim(y, 0)). See Add higher level export constraints api for the details.
No updates: MaskRCNN, Detectron2, wav2vec2, fused boolean mask update
How far away from dynamic shapes “shipping”? Soumith defines shipping as “we show meaningful end-to-end speed ups in training due to dynamic shapes” (possibly with s/training/inference/ as a milestone on the way to this goal), but at the same time, we are in the business of creating generic infrastructure that works for everything, not just cherry-picked models.
On training, the metric here is difficult to define, because models don’t really have dynamic shapes. So to evaluate real world models, we would really have to take models that do have dynamic shapes in training (e.g., can be observed by the fact that otherwise they blow out the compile cache.) We don’t have this list of models: we need to sweep the benchmark suite and find out (although there’s a decent chance models involving bounding boxes like detectron2 and MaskRCNN are likely to be on this list). Plus, you have to make sure you’re running enough iterations, with real enough data, to actually exercise this data dependence! However, it’s possible things are working today already, we just don’t actually have the data.
On inference, the value add of dynamic shapes is much easier to articulate: people want to vary batch size (for adaptive batching), sequence length (because text input is variable size) and image size (ditto), and we have already shown dynamic shapes works end-to-end for models like BERT. The flip side of the coin is if dynamic shapes is “shipped by default”; and this involves adaptively turning on dynamic shapes when we detect situations where we have potential to blow out our compile cache–this is probably a week or two of full time work to finish off.
aot_eager inference: -1 (-1 WoW). The regression is a new sympy RecursionError in vision_maskrcnn induced by unspecialize_int=False when running reshape(torch.empty(s1, (s0 + 1)//2, 2), (s1, s0)). Logs
aot_eager training: -2 (-2 WoW). The regression are also two sympy RecursionError induced by unspecialize_int=False. The botnet26t_256 looks like the same cause (reshape) as the vision_maskrcnn, but eca_botnext26ts_256 looks like some sort of modulus problem. Logs
inductor inference: -4 (+6 WoW, or unchanged, depending on how you count it). We regressed this stat with specialize_int = False, but we fixed most of the regression in time for the report. We did one trace: volo_d1_224 is now fixed, but convit_base is failing with a new error “TypeError: Cannot convert symbols to int”
inductor training: -9 (NEW!). Training is enabled in CI! The bulk of the current failures are either 'float' object has no attribute '_has_symbolic_sizes_strides' (this is due to AOTAutograd sending graphs with SymFloat inputs, contrary to inductor’s input contract). There is one accuracy failure with rexnet_100; however, this model is known to be flaky accuracy with static shapes too.
Guards generated by inductor in backwards don’t do anything. We’ve known this for a while, but this has started showing up for real in bug reports. Usually, we didn’t want the specialization anyway, but this bug means that instead of getting recompiles, we will just blindly run code at the wrong size; sometimes you still get an error (like size mismatch between 14817 and 14797).
Minifier with dynamic shapes doesn’t work! Even our users have noticed.
The export team has been asking about how to export MaskRCNN, and in particular Yidi Wu has submitted a PR requesting to add while loops to our control flow operators. The while loop is motivated by the fact that MaskRCNN iterates through bounding boxes to perform an expensive prediction, and they need early exit as soon as they’ve found what they’re looking for.
I looked into what kind of dynamism folks wanted for InstructPix2Pix, and it seems like they want to dynamically vary the image height/width. It is not clear if we can actually easily support this; I don’t understand diffusion model architecture well enough to know how to compile a size agnostic model; it seems like you need to make actual architecture changes to work on different sizes.
No updates: LLAMA, OpenNMT, Detectron2, wav2vec2, fused boolean mask update
PyTorch core offsite happened! Some things we discussed:
Split reductions. We have a strategy for dynamic shapes split reductions now. Split reductions refer to a performance optimization when compiling reductions where the non-reduced axis is too small for us to fully occupy all blocks on GPU by simply assigning each reduction to a block. When the number of elements to reduce is large, we want to split these large reductions into smaller reductions for better occupancy. Split reductions substantially improve performance when they apply. Currently, split reductions cause us to specialize on all of the input shapes involved; to support dynamic shapes, we should instead guard only the determination if an axis is large or not. We may perform this as part of an Inductor-specific decomp, if it is simpler to do so. Thanks Natalia for guidance on how to do this.
Supporting while loops as control flow operator. Yidi Wu wants to while_loop to our control flow operators set: [functorch][experimental] Support while_loop in eager_mode by ydwu4 · Pull Request #96899 · pytorch/pytorch · GitHub I didn’t like it. We spent a bunch of time discussing this in the offsite, and we settled on this: there is utility in pushing control flow with restrictions to Inductor, as it gives Inductor opportunities to optimize (instead of forcing a hard barrier before and after the control flow.) The important thing is to restrict the operator sufficiently, so that it can be treated as “just a complicated operator”. Furthermore, to propagate the operator all the way to Inductor, all of our passes must know how to handle it (most notably, autograd, functionalization and batching). To put a control flow operator into PyTorch proper, it must live up to this standard; otherwise it should just be treated as some ad hoc, inference export only unblocker.
Asserts. We spent some time discussing how asserts (and debug logging) should be implemented in our IR, prompted by Tugsuu’s work in export on the topic. The challenge is twofold: first, asserts are side effectful operations, but the current design of our IR is functional and would permit us to DCE all asserts. Second, we don’t want asserts/debug logs to interfere with normal optimizations that we are doing in programs. Our current thinking is that we will do a GHC-style “world token” to represent asserts and debug logs. In short, every assert/debug log will take a synthetic, zero-size “world token” tensor as input, and produce a new world token as output. The overall graph takes a world token and produces a world token. The resulting graph looks like this:
def f(x, world0):
b = torch.any(x)
world1 = torch._assert(b, world0)
y = x + 1
return (y, world1)
World tokens done in this style enforce a consistent ordering between all asserts and logs (it is likely confusing to users if log messages get reordered) and don’t require any special handling from optimization passes (as these are just “normal” data dependencies.) No new concept of control dependencies is added.
aot_eager inference: -1 (unchanged). Still vision_maskrcnn sympy error from reshape(torch.empty(s1, (s0 + 1)//2, 2), (s1, s0)).
aot_eager training: -2 (unchanged). Still botnet26t_256 and eca_botnext26ts_256.
inductor inference: -6 (-2 WoW). The regression in PegasusForCausalLM and PegasusForConditionalGeneration is from the bug fix to avoid specializing on torch.Size. These models error in the same way as convit_base: “TypeError: Cannot convert symbols to int”
inductor training: -2 (+7 WoW). This was where most of our activity was this week! There’s only two failures left: pytorch_unet (TypeError: unhashable type: ‘SymInt’) and tf_efficientnet_b0 (NameError: name ‘s1’ is not defined)
Graph breaks on master. Will’s graph break infrastructure is checked into master, but not yet running on dynamic shapes. The also appear to be turned off for aot_eager. I did a run with them turned on for dynamic shapes. PyTorch CI HUD
inductor: -7 (NEW!). Weirdly, using inductor as the backend seems to change dynamo behavior. These models did worse: XLNetLMHeadModel, poolformer_m36, visformer_small, volo_d1_224, drq, functorch_maml_omniglot, maml_omniglot. We also had one model do better (less graph breaks): hf_Reformer